Monday, 31 August 2009

Qur'an in Portuguese

Click on title to see the Qur'an in Portuguese.

The 99 Names of Allah

The 99 Names of Allah, also known as The 99 Most Beautiful Names of God (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى‎ ʾasmāʾ allāh al-Ḥusnā), are the names of God (specifically, attributes) by which Muslims regard God and which are traditionally maintained as described in the Qur'ān, and Sunnah, amongst other places. There is, according to hadith, a special group of 99 names but no enumeration of them. Thus the exact list is not agreed upon, and the names of God (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed 99 in the Qur'ān and Sunnah.

Transliteration Translation (can vary based on context)

Rahmān; The All Beneficent, The Most Merciful in Essence, The Compassionate, The Most Gracious
Rahīm; The Most Merciful, The Most Merciful in Actions
Malik; The Owner, The Sovereign, The True and Ultimate King
Quddūs; The Most Holy, The Most Pure, The Most Perfect
Salām; The Peace and Blessing, The Source of Peace and Safety, The Most Perfect
Mu'min; The Guarantor, The Self Affirming, The Granter of Security, The Affirmer of Truth
Al-Muhaymin; The Guardian, The Preserver, The Overseeing Protector
ʿAzīz; The Almighty, The Self Sufficient, The Most Honorable
Al-Jabbār; The Powerful, The Irresistible, The Compeller, The Most Lofty, The Restorer/Improver of Affairs
Al-Mutakabbir; The Tremendous
Al-Khāliq; The Creator
Al-Bāri'; The Rightful
Al-Muṣawwir; The Fashioner of Forms
Al-Ghaffār; The Ever Forgiving
Al-Qahhār; The All Compelling Subduer
Al-Wahhāb; The Bestower
Ar-Razzāq; The Ever Providing
Al-Fattāh; The Opener, The Victory Giver
Al-ʿAlīm; The All Knowing, The Omniscient
Al-Qābiḍ; The Restrainer, The Straightener
Al-Bāsiṭ; The Expander, The Munificent
Al-Khāfiḍ; The Abaser
Ar-Rāfiʿ; The Exalter
Al-Muʿizz; The Giver of Honour
Al-Mu'thell; The Giver of Dishonour
As-Samīʿ; The All Hearing
Al-Baṣīr; The All Seeing
Al-Ḥakam; The Judge, The Arbitrator
`Adl; The Utterly Just
Al-Laṭīf; The Gentle, The Subtly Kind
Al-Khabīr; The All Aware
Al-Ḥalīm; The Forbearing, The Indulgent
Al-ʿAẓīm; The Magnificent, The Infinite
Al-Ghafūr; The All Forgiving
Ash-Shakūr; The Grateful
Al-ʿAliyy; The Sublimely Exalted
Al-Kabīr; The Great
Al-Ḥafīẓ; The Preserver
Al-Muqīt; The Nourisher
Al-Ḥasīb; The Bringer of Judgment
Al-Jalīl; The Majestic
Al-Karīm; The Bountiful, The Generous
Ar-Raqīb; The Watchful
Al-Mujīb; The Responsive, The Answerer
Al-Wāsiʿ; The Vast, The All Encompassing
Ḥakīm; The Wise
Al-Wadūd; The Loving, The Kind One
Al-Majīd; The All Glorious
Al-Bāʿith; The Raiser of The Dead
Ash-Shahīd; The Witness
Ḥaqq; The Truth, The Real
Al-Wakīl; The Trustee, The Dependable
Al-Qawwiyy; The Strong
Al-Matīn; The Firm, The Steadfast
Al-Waliyy; The Protecting Friend, Patron and Helper
Hamid; The All Praiseworthy
Al-Muḥṣi; The Accounter, The Numberer of All
Al-Mubdi'; The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All
Al-Muʿīd; The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All
Al-Muḥyi; The Giver of Life
Al-Mumīt; The Bringer of Death, The Destroyer
Al-Ḥayy; The Ever Living
Al-Qayyūm; The Self Subsisting Provider of All
Al-Wājid; The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing
Al-Mājid; The Illustrious, The Magnificent
Al-Wāḥid; The One, The Unique, Manifestation of Unity
Al-'Aḥad; The One, the All Inclusive, The Indivisible
Aṣ-Ṣamad; The Self Sufficient, The Impregnable,The Eternally Besought of All, The Everlasting
Al-Qādir; The All Able
Al-Muqtadir; The All Determiner, The Dominant
Al-Muqaddim; The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward
Al-Mu'akhkhir; The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away
Al-'Awwal; The First (Alpha)
Al-'Akhir; The Last (Omega)
Aẓ-ẓāhir; The Manifest, The All Victorious
Al-Bāṭin; The Hidden, The All Encompassing
Al-Wāli; The Patron
Al-Mutāʿali; The Self Exalted
Al-Barr; The Most Kind and Righteous
At-Tawwāb; The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting
Al-Muntaqim; The Avenger
Al-ʿAfuww; The Pardoner, The Effacer of Sins
Ar-Ra'ūf; The Compassionate, The All Pitying
مالك الملك
Mālik-ul-Mulk; The Owner of All Sovereignty
ذو الجلال والإكرام
Dhū-l-Jalāliwa-l-'ikrām; The Lord of Majesty and Generosity
Al-Muqsiţ; The Equitable, The Requiter
Al-Jāmiʿ; The Gatherer, The Unifier
Al-Ghaniyy; The All Rich, The Independent
Al-Mughni; The Enricher, The Emancipator
Al-Māniʿ; The Withholder, The Shielder, the Defender
Aḍ-Ḍārr; The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor
An-Nāfiʿ; The Propitious, The Benefactor
An-Nūr; The Light
Al-Hādi; The Guide
Al-Badīʿ; The Incomparable, The Originator
Al-Bāqi; The Ever Enduring and Immutable
Al-Wārith; The Heir, The Inheritor of All
Ar-Rashīd; The Guide, Infallible Teacher and Knower
Aṣ-Ṣabur; The Patient, The Timeless.

100th Name

MahdiOther such hadiths, which vary according to different Shi'a sects of Islam, suggest that the 100th Name will be revealed by the Mahdi.

According to Islamic tradition, a Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in the exact same form. For example, nobody may be named al-Malik (The King), but may be named Malik (King).

However the names/attributes of God can be combined with the word "‘Abd -" which means "servant/slave" (of God) and are commonly used as
personal names among Muslims. For example ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ("Servant of the Most Compassionate/the Beneficent"). The two parts of the name may be written separately (as above) or combined as one transliterated name; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ‘Abd is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g. Abdurrahman, Abdul'aziz, "Abdul-Jabbar," or even Abdullah ("Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form: ‘abdu.)

Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99. Examples include:
Ra'ouf, such as
Ra'ouf Mus'ad.
Salam, such as
Salam Fayyad.
Kareem, such as
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar.

The fasting of a Catholic

On 28th of August, on the SOL - Portuguese Newspaper - I saw an article with the title "The fasting of a Catholic".

Ana do Carmo, public diplomacy advisor, started the Ramadan like a Muslim. For that, she asked help to Mr. Omar Suisse. teacher of Arabic Studies.

In this article she reported the first six days and all the difficulties.

I want to say that I liked very much the article and I think that it is time to understand more about the Arabic culture and Muslim principles.

Congratulations Ana do Carmo for your courage.

I need to talk about Mourinho (the Portuguese coach of Inter of Milan) too. He was threatened with death because the Italian Press told that he didn't respected the faith of a mouslim player. I saw the interview and he didn't told that. The Iman of Islamic Community in Italy already said that he believes that Mourinho respect the Islamic Religion.

Otherwise, I need to recognize that sometimes Mourinho don't say the things by the best way.
I know that the fasting can make the person physically weaker but I know too that the faith move mountains and that it is more strong than the fasting.

Ramadan Kareem.

A Living Legend

Ramadan Kareem,

After a short holidays with family, I'm working again and ready to strart again with the blog.

My engineer, Carlos Rocha, sent me a PDF with a great tribute to His Highness Sheikh Saqr Bin Mohamed Al Qasimi, father of our partner in RAK Edigaia, His Highness Sheikh Mohamed Bin Saqr Al Qasimi.

More than a tribute, this PDF show an interview of H.H. Sheikh Mohamed talking about his father. In my opinion, this interview shows who is H.H. Sheikh Mohamed Al Qasimi as a man, as a businessman and as a friend.

I already did a tribute to H.H. Sheikh Saqr Al Qasimi on this blog but now I will post here the interview of H.H. Sheikh Mohamed.

The longest reigning ruler in the Middle East, HH Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammed Al Qasimi has completed 60 years of rule and is the pride of the UAE.

People Come First

“Sheikh Saqr asked his people if they wanted to be a part of the UAE Federation or function as an independent country. Based on their consensus for unification, he joined the Federation. It was almost electoral”.
My memories of my father are divided into two sections – my interaction with him as a son and as an employee in his government.

When I was 7-8 years old, I was sitting in his majlis while he was presiding over a land dispute.

There were two groups of the same tribe who had a issue over land and they were seated in two separate rows. An elderly man from the end of the first row, who, perhaps, more agitated than the rest, unleashed his sword and ran to strike my father but was overpowered by his own tribesmen. While most of us in the majlis were shocked, all along, I saw my father unperturbed. He sat where he was and didn’t move from his place. While most of us thought he would imprison the man for his misconduct, Sheikh Saqr simply pardoned him, because he always believes power has to be used in the right place. Ruling Ras Al Khimah, which has a host of tribes each different than the other, would need a special way of governance, and my father had the acumen. He believes that being a Ruler is a power bestowed upon him by God and that is why, it has to be used correctly.

After I completed my studies in Philosophy from the Cairo University, I joined the Courts Department in Ras Al Khaimah in 1979. Unlike other departments that usually deal with locals, the courts deal with a cross-section of people of all nationalities.

My father always taught me to keep my cool, be silent and be impartial while imparting judgement. He told me, “Many people will cry but their tears could be false, many people laugh but they needn’t necessarily be happy. Close your eyes to the person’s age, nationality, gender, colour or religion. We must discover who is right and who is wrong.” However, he was extremely judicious too. Once, an expatriate child, who had been abroad for studies, was returning home to Ras Al Khaimah when his parents realised his visa had expired. It was 2am in the night and the family came knocking on Sheikh Saqr’s door. He was up and solved the problem immediately.

His involvement in the emirate’s welfare is so intense that he is loved and revered by all his people. In times of crisis, people have travelled down from the mountains and deserts to safeguard him. When there was word about the Federation, he addressed his people in an open majlis. I was there too, and I remember there were hundreds of people, from all strata and vocations who had assembled there. He asked them if they would consent that Ras Al Khaimah join the Federation, and asked Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Humaid Al Qasimi, to count the number of hands that went up. When there was a majority, he consented that RAK join the Federation. It was nearly electoral.

Tuesday, 18 August 2009

Holidays and Ramadan

The Ramadan is starting.
I would like to express my public respect to all Muslim people because I know that it is a great and important moment fot them.
It's time to think about the past year, since the last Ramadan, and think about the next year. It's time to live a different month with strong feelings. Allah, or my God, respect the poor and the rich people. It is a good time for all of us start doing the same because what we can see in our world in our days, especially in ocidental countries, is exactly the opposite.
I wish a great holidays for everyone and a Ramadan Kareem for the Muslims but a special Ramadan for my friends in UAE.

Friday, 14 August 2009

UAE, Arab people and my relation with them

(On picture: Me and my friend Mohamed Hassan in Burj Al Arab)

First time I was in UAE, I was received like a king.

H. H. Sheikh Mohamed Al Qasimi, our partner, sent his people to receive us in the airport with all kind of attentions.

I stayed on Ras Al Khaimah, in Hilton Resort with my father and all Edigaia team. It was a great time and I meet the entire Emirate guided by driver of His Highness, Mr. Majid.

It was a pleasure sign a Memorandum of Association with His Highness and start thinking about business in UAE. More than the money, the country is beautiful and the people are very friendly.

I thought in that time that I found my second country. For me, UAE is a great place to live and to work.

I started meeting people like my friend and my partner Mohamed Hassan and after H.H. Sheikha Hind Al Qasimi and others. It was a great pleasure start a company with them too.

Mohamed Hassan showed to me what are an Arab and a Muslim and I was delighted. I really feel that I have some Arab blood in my veins. The social concern and the respect for the others is something that we can see all the time especially between the Sheikhs.

(On Picture: My father, H.H. Sheikh Mohamed Al Qasimi, H.H. Sheikh Sultan Al Qasimi and Me in F.C.Porto Stadium)
A lot of people say that we can’t talk about religion, Catholic God or Jesus. Mohamed Hassan, H.H. Sheikh Mohamed and others showed me the opposite. For them, my God is their God; there is only one! For them Jesus is a prophet like Mohamed and others. Talk with them about religions and religious principles are like talk with someone else; I need to respect their principles and they respect mines.

Because I love to write, I did a small text about UAE, Arab people and my relation with them:

UAE means United Arab Emirates but could very well mean Union, Awesome (spectacular) and Elegant. They live for the others. They use their Union to show to the world than is possible do good things when we are perseverant and we work all with the same finality. They are Awesome or Spectacular; they build and they do what nobody did ever in the world. They are Elegant; they are friendly, they have respect for all, they are correct in all occasions.

The national lifestyle of UAE is strictly conditioned by strong affiliation to Islamic tradition. However, the country is highly tolerant towards expatriates who are given a great degree of religious freedom. The government spares no efforts to safeguard the religious and traditional interests of the country. In the country, one hears the regular prayer calls five times a day and sees all the people sincerely observe the religion.

Nobody feels bad in that country. Is a country with a strong culture but open to the occidental world. The people are intelligent and curious; open to new things and new ideas that improve the country development.

Thursday, 13 August 2009

Women's rights highlighted

Abu Dhabi: The UAE General Women's Union (GWU) will launch a "Know Your Rights" programme next October to educate women about federal and local legislations addressing and dealing with issues of concern to women.

The awareness drive is part of the GWU's efforts to implement the National Strategy for the Advancement of Women, launched by Her Highness Shaikha Fatima Bint Mubarak, Chairperson of the General Women's Union and President of the Family Development Foundation. The strategy aims at activating the role of women and ensuring their positive participation in eight key areas: Education, economy, media, social work, health, legislations and environment as well as political and executive fields.

The campaign seeks to heighten awareness among women about their rights which are guaranteed by the constitution and build their capacities to defend their legal rights.

Under the programme, the first phase will see holding of 12 workshops and four training task forces.

Through the training workshops, women will learn about international conventions and laws regarding women's rights.

Wednesday, 12 August 2009

Distance from Lisbon to Abu Dhabi

Distance from Lisbon to Abu Dhabi is 6106 kilometers or 3794 miles or 3297 nautical miles.
The distance is the theoretical air distance (great circle distance). Flying between the two locations airports can be longer or shorter, depending on airport location and actual route chosen.

Heading from Lisbon:
38° 42' North
9° 05' West
Initial heading:
85.2° East
Final heading:
121.3° Southeast by east
Heading from Abu Dhabi:
24° 27' North
54° 23' East
Initial heading:
301.3° Northwest by west
Final heading:
265.2° West
Map - Shortest path between Lisbon and Abu Dhabi
(Click on image to see bigger)

O Location for Lisbon

O Location for Abu Dhabi

The map is using a projection that makes land and oceans much wider near the south and north poles. The heading/course/bearing during a flight varies in most cases. Map based on image from NASA.

The 5 Pillars of Islam and the 10 Commandments of Catholic

The 5 Pillars of Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are Shahada (Profession of Faith), Salah (prayers), Zakah (Giving of Alms), Saum (Fasting during Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). These five practices are essential to Sunni Islam; Shi'a Muslims subscribe to eight ritual practices which substantially overlap with the five Pillars. Twelvers have five fundamental beliefs which relates to Aqidah.

The concept of five pillars is taken from the Hadith collections, notably those of Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. The Qur'an reveals the “five pillars” of Islam, the five ritual expressions that define orthodox Muslim religious belief and practice. Wudu is a washing in Salah and it is the first that is done for Salah.

Shahadah is a statement professing monotheism and accepting Mohammad as
God's messenger and there is no god but God. The shahadah is a set statement normally recited in Arabic, translated as: "[I profess that] There is no God but Allah, and Mohammad is the Prophet of Allah."

The second pillar of Islam is Salat, the requirement to pray five times a day at fixed times during the day. The times of day to pray are at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and night. Each salat is performed facing towards the
Kaaba in Mecca. Salat is intended to focus the mind on Allah; it is seen as a personal communication with Allah, expressing gratitude and worship. According to the Qur'an, the benefit of prayer “restrains [one] from shameful and evil deeds”.[Qur'an 29:40]

Salat is compulsory but there is some flexibility in body and clothing. Nonetheless, the place of prayer must be cleaned.

All prayers should be conducted within the prescribed time period (waqt) and with the appropriate number of units (raka'ah). While the prayers may be made at any point within the waqt, it is considered best to begin them as soon as possible after the call to prayer (that comes from a muezzin on minarets) is heard. The prayers are essentially expressions of adoration of God, but the worshipper may add his own personal request. The most commonly repeated prayer is the short first Sura, or Section of the Qu'ran, beginning, 'Praise be to Allah, Lord of Creation, the compassionate, the merciful'.

Zakat or
alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all who are able to do so. It is considered to be a personal responsibility for Muslims to ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality. Zakat consists of spending 2.5% of one's wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy, including slaves, debtors and travellers. A Muslim may also donate more as an act of voluntary charity (sadaqah), in order to achieve additional divine reward. There are two main types of Zakat. First, there is the kajj, which is a fixed amount based on the cost of food that is paid during the month of Ramadan by the head of a family for himself and his dependents. Second, there is the Zakat on wealth, which covers money made in business, savings, income, and so on. In current usage Zakat is treated as a 2.5% collections on most valuables and savings held for a full lunar year, as long as the total value is more than a basic minimum known as nisab (three ounces or 87.48g of gold). As of 20 September 2008, nisab is approximately $2,640 or an equivalent amount in any other currency. Many Shi'ites are expected to pay an additional amount in the form of a khums tax, which they consider to be a separate ritual practice. There are four principles that should be followed when giving the Zakat:

1. The giver must declare to God his intention to give the Zakat.
2. The Zakat must be paid on the day that it is due. If one fails to pay the Zakat, people think he is refusing to fulfill God's wishes.
3. Payment must be in kind. This means if one has a lot of money then he needs to pay 2.5% of his income. If he does not have much money, he needs to pay in a different way. For example, if he has a lot of cattle, then he pays in cattle instead of money.
4. The Zakat must be distributed in the community from which it was taken.

Sawm during Ramadan
Many Muslims traditionally break their fasts in
Ramadan with dates (like those offered by this date seller in Kuwait City), as was the recorded practice (Sunnah) of Muhammad.
Three types of fasting (Sawm) are recognized by the Qur'an: Ritual fasting,[2:183–187] fasting as compensation or repentance,[2:196] and ascetic fasting.[33:35]

Ritual fasting is an obligatory act during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must abstain from food, drink, and sexual intercourse from dawn to dusk during this month, and are to be especially mindful of other sins.

The fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness to Allah, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, to atone for their past sins, and to remind them of the needy. During Ramadan, Muslims are also expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, anger, envy, greed, lust, harsh language, gossip and to try to get along with people better than normal. In addition, all obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided.

Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory, but is forbidden for several groups for whom it would be very dangerous and excessively problematic. These include pre-pubescent children, those with a medical condition such as diabetes, elderly people, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Observing fasts is not permitted for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those who are ill or traveling. Missing fasts usually must be made up soon afterward, although the exact requirements vary according to circumstance.

The hajj to the Kaaba, in Mecca, is an important practice in Islam.
The Hajj is a
pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca, and derives from an ancient Arab practice. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime if they can afford it. When the pilgrim is around 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) from Mecca, he must dress in Ihram clothing, which consists of two white sheets. Both men and women are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, as the Hajj is mandatory for both males and females. After a Muslim makes the trip to Mecca, he/she is known as a hajj/hajja (one who made the pilgrimage to Mecca).[21] The main rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the Black Stone, travelling seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.

The pilgrim, or the haji, is honoured in their community. For some, this is an incentive to perform the Hajj. Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to Allah, not a means to gain social standing. The believer should be self-aware and examine their intentions in performing the pilgrimage. This should lead to constant striving for self-improvement. A pilgrimage made at any time other than the Hajj season is called an Umrah, and while not mandatory is strongly encouraged.
The 10 Commandments of Catholic

The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that, according to Judeo-Christian tradition, were authored by God and given to Moses on the mountain referred to as "Mount Sinai" (Exodus 19:23) or "Horeb" (Deuteronomy 5:2) in the form of two stone tablets. They are recognized as a moral foundation in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

In Biblical Hebrew, the commandments are called עשרת הדברים (translit. Aseret ha-Dvarîm) and in Rabbinical Hebrew עשרת הדברות (translit. Aseret ha-Dibrot), both translatable as "the ten terms." The English name "Decalogue" is derived from the Greek translation δεκάλογος dekalogos "ten terms", found in the Septuagint at Exodus 34:28 and Deuteronomy 10:4.

The phrase "Ten Commandments" is generally used to refer to similar passages in Exodus 20:2–17 and Deuteronomy 5:6–21. Some scholars distinguish between this "Ethical Decalogue" and a different series of ten commandments in Exodus 34:11–27 that they call the "Ritual Decalogue". Although Exodus 34 contains ten imperative statements, the passages in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5 contain fourteen or fifteen. However, the Bible assigns the count of ten to both lists. Various denominations divide these statements into ten in different ways, and may also translate the Commandments differently.
1. You shall have no other gods before me
This commandment is to believe in the existence of God and His influence on events in the world, and that the goal of the redemption from Egypt was to become His servants (Rashi). It prohibits belief in or worship of any additional deities.
2. You shall not make for yourself an idol
This prohibits the construction or fashioning of "idols" in the likeness of created things (beasts, fish, birds, people) and worshipping them.
3. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of your God
This commandment is to never take the name of God in a vain, pointless or insincere oath.
4. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy
The seventh day of the week is termed Shabbat and is holy, just as God ceased creative activity during Creation. The aspect of zachor is performed by declaring the greatness of the day (kiddush), by having three festive meals, and by engaging in Torah study and pleasurable activities. The aspect of shamor is performed by abstaining from productive activity (39 melachot) on the Shabbat.
5. Honor your father and mother
The obligation to honor one's parents is an obligation that one owes to God and fulfills this obligation through one's actions towards one's parents.
6. You shall not kill
Murdering a human being is a capital sin.
7. You shall not commit adultery
Adultery is defined as sexual intercourse between a man and a married woman who is not his wife.
8. You shall not steal
According to Rashi, this is not understood as stealing in the conventional sense, since theft of property is forbidden elsewhere and is not a capital offense. In this context it is to be taken as "do not kidnap."
9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor
One must not bear false witness in a court of law or other proceeding.
10. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife
One is forbidden to desire and plan how one may obtain that which God has given to another. Maimonides makes a distinction in codifying the laws between the instruction given here in Exodus (You shall not covet) and that given in Deuteronomy (You shall not desire), according to which one does not violate the Exodus commandment unless there is a physical action associated with the desire, even if this is legally purchasing an envied object.



The Arabian horse is a breed of horse that originated in the Middle East. With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most easily recognizable horse breeds in the world. It is one of the oldest horse breeds, with archaeological evidence of horses that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years. Throughout history, Arabian horses from the Middle East spread around the world by both war and trade, used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement, endurance, and good bone. Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in almost every modern breed of riding horse.

The Arabian developed in a desert climate and was prized by the nomadic Bedouin people, often being brought inside the family tent for shelter and protection. This close relationship with humans has created a horse breed that is good-natured, quick to learn, and willing to please. But the Arabian also developed the high spirit and alertness needed in a horse used for raiding and war. This combination of willingness and sensitivity requires modern Arabian horse owners to handle their horses with competence and respect.

"The Versatile Arabian" is a slogan of the breed. Arabians dominate the discipline of
endurance riding, and compete today in many other fields of equestrian activity. They are one of the top ten most popular horse breeds in the world. Arabian horses are now found worldwide, including the United States and Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, continental Europe, South America (especially Brazil), and its land of origin, the Middle East.

Arabian horses have refined, wedge-shaped heads, a broad forehead, large eyes, large nostrils, and small muzzles. Most display a distinctive concave or "dished" profile. Many Arabians also have a slight forehead bulge between their eyes, called the "jibbah" by the Bedouin, that adds additional sinus capacity, believed to have helped the Arabian horse in its native dry desert climate. Another breed characteristic is an arched neck with a large, well-set windpipe set on a refined, clean throatlatch. This structure of the poll and throatlatch was called the mitbah or mitbeh by the Bedouin, and in the best Arabians is long, allowing flexibility in the bridle and room for the windpipe.

Other distinctive features are a relatively long, level croup and naturally high tail carriage. Well-bred Arabians have a deep, well-angled hip and well laid-back shoulder. Most have a compact body with a short back. Some, though not all, have 5 lumbar vertebrae instead of the usual 6, and 17 rather than 18 pairs of ribs. Thus, even a small Arabian can carry a heavy rider with ease. Arabians usually have dense, strong bone, sound feet, and good hoof walls. They are especially noted for endurance.

Some people confuse the refinement of Arabians with having weak or too-light bone. However, the USEF breed standard requires Arabians have solid bone and correct conformation, and the superiority of the breed in endurance competition clearly demonstrates that well-bred Arabians are strong, sound horses with good bone and superior stamina. At international levels of FEI-sponsored endurance events, Arabians and half-Arabians are the dominant performers in distance competition worldwide.

Another misconception confuses the skeletal structure of the sacrum with the angle of the "hip" (the pelvis or ilium), leading some to assert that the comparatively horizontal croup and high-carried tail of Arabians correlates to a flat pelvis and thus they cannot use their hindquarters properly. However, the croup is formed by the sacral vertebrae. The hip angle is determined by the attachment of the ilium to the spine, the structure and length of the femur, and other aspects of hindquarter anatomy, not necessarily the angle of the sacrum. Thus, the Arabian has conformation typical of other horse breeds built for speed and distance, such as the Thoroughbred, which properly includes the angle of the ilium being more oblique than that of the croup, the hip at approximately 35 degrees to a croup angle of 25 degrees. The proper comparison of sacrum and hip is in length, not angle. All horses bred to gallop need a good length of croup and good length of hip for proper attachment of muscles, and the two do go together as a rule. The hip angle, on the other hand, is not necessarily correlated to the line of the croup. Thus, a good-quality Arabian has both a relatively horizontal croup and a properly angled pelvis with good length of croup and depth of hip (length of pelvis) to allow agility and impulsion. Within the breed, there are variations. Some individuals have wider, more powerfully muscled hindquarters suitable for intense bursts of activity in events such as reining, while others have longer, leaner muscling better suited for long stretches of flat work such as endurance riding or horse racing.

The breed standard for Arabian horses, as stated by the United States Equestrian Federation, describes the Arabians as standing between 14.1 and 15.1 hands (57 to 61 inches (145 to 155 cm)) tall, "with the occasional individual over or under." Thus, all Arabians, regardless of height, are classified as "horses," even though 14.2 hands (58 inches (147 cm)) is the traditional cutoff height between a horse and a pony. A common myth is that Arabians are not strong because of their size. However, the Arabian horse is noted for a greater density of bone than other breeds, short cannons, sound feet, and a broad, short back; all of which give the breed physical strength comparable to many taller animals. Clearly, for tasks where the sheer weight of the horse matters, such as farm work done by a draft horse, or team roping, any lighter-weight horse is at a disadvantage, but for most purposes, the Arabian is a strong and hardy breed of light horse able to carry any type of rider in most equestrian pursuits.

Arabians are noted for both intelligence and a spirited disposition.

For centuries, Arabian horses lived in the desert in close association with humans. For shelter and protection from theft, prized war mares were sometimes kept in their owner's tent, close to children and everyday family life. Only horses with a naturally good disposition were allowed to reproduce. The result is that Arabians today have a temperament that, among other examples, makes them one of the few breeds for which the United States Equestrian Federation allows children to exhibit stallions in nearly all show ring classes, including those limited to riders under 18.

On the other hand, the Arabian is also classified as a "hot-blooded" breed, a category that includes other refined, spirited horses bred for speed, such as the Thoroughbred and the Barb. Like other hot-bloods, Arabians' sensitivity and intelligence enable quick learning and greater communication with their riders. However, their intelligence also allows them to learn bad habits as quickly as good ones, and do not tolerate inept or abusive training practices.

Some people believe that it is more difficult to train a "hot-blooded" horse such as the Arabian, Thoroughbred, Barb and Akhal-Teke. However, most Arabians have a natural tendency to cooperate with humans, but when treated badly, like any horse, can become excessively nervous or anxious, though seldom become vicious unless seriously spoiled or subjected to extreme abuse. On the other hand, romantic myths are sometimes told about Arabian horses that give them near-divine characteristics.

Arabians are versatile horses that compete in many equestrian fields, including Horse racing, the horse show disciplines of Saddle Seat, Western Pleasure, and Hunt seat, as well as Dressage, Cutting, Reining, Endurance riding, Show jumping, Eventing, youth events such as equitation, and others. They are used as pleasure, trail riding, and working ranch horses for those who are not interested in competition.


The Lusitano is an ancient Portuguese horse breed, that until the 1960s shared its registration with the Spanish Andalusian horse. Both are sometimes called Iberian horses, as they originated from the Iberian peninsula. They were developed for military purposes, and later used for dressage and bull fighting. In America, Lusitanos and Andalusians are registered together under the International Andalusian and Lusitano Horse Association (IALHA.)

The Lusitano derives its name from lusitania, the name which the ancient Romans gave to the part of the Iberian peninsula that corresponds roughly to modern Portugal and part of modern Spain. Lusitanos and Andalusians originally were registered together under the Spanish Stud Book, but the breeds separated in 1960. At that time Portguese breeders sought to strengthen the breed and re-emphasize the distinct qualities of the Lusitano. Famous Portuguese breeders named several notable lines, including the Andrade and Veiga.

In the 17th century the Spanish ceased fighting bulls from horseback. At that time they began to selectively breed horses for riding and for parade, with a flashy gait, strong bones and a powerful presence. The Portuguese continue to fight bulls from horseback and thus kept these distinct historic characteristics in the modern Lusitano.

Temperamentally, the Lusitano has a reputation for courage, with a tendency to move forward toward that which threatens, combining calmness with great fire while under saddle. Lusitanos are reputed to be intelligent, to possess a sensible, levelheaded temperament and tendency to bond strongly with humans. They have great balance, and are said to have very comfortable gaits.

The Lusitano often has a convex profile, (Roman nose,) a trait that has been found to be tied genetically with an aptitude for "La Gineta," the ancient equestrian art defined by the necessities of mounted single combat or its contemporary replacements: bull fighting, dressage, jumping. They are compact, with powerful hindquarters, some with high-stepping action, and a thick mane and tail. They also have a sloping croup and low-set tail, as well as short backs. They have a low set cresty neck, a broad chest, well-sprung ribs. They are extremely powerful and strong, due to their muscular hindquarters and strong, long legs.
Many Lusitanos turn gray with age. They come in a variety of solid colors and usually stand 15 to 16 hands. Palomino, buckskin, and cremello are the rarest hair coat colors, and most sought after.

Lusitano are proficient at the high levels of dressage. They also compete in show jumping.