Monday, 31 August 2009

The 99 Names of Allah

The 99 Names of Allah, also known as The 99 Most Beautiful Names of God (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى‎ ʾasmāʾ allāh al-Ḥusnā), are the names of God (specifically, attributes) by which Muslims regard God and which are traditionally maintained as described in the Qur'ān, and Sunnah, amongst other places. There is, according to hadith, a special group of 99 names but no enumeration of them. Thus the exact list is not agreed upon, and the names of God (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed 99 in the Qur'ān and Sunnah.

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Arabic
Transliteration Translation (can vary based on context)

1
الرحمن
Ar-
Rahmān; The All Beneficent, The Most Merciful in Essence, The Compassionate, The Most Gracious
2
الرحيم
Ar-
Rahīm; The Most Merciful, The Most Merciful in Actions
3
الملك
Al-
Malik; The Owner, The Sovereign, The True and Ultimate King
4
القدوس
Al-
Quddūs; The Most Holy, The Most Pure, The Most Perfect
5
السلام
As-
Salām; The Peace and Blessing, The Source of Peace and Safety, The Most Perfect
6
المؤمن
Al-
Mu'min; The Guarantor, The Self Affirming, The Granter of Security, The Affirmer of Truth
7
المهيمن
Al-Muhaymin; The Guardian, The Preserver, The Overseeing Protector
8
العزيز
Al-
ʿAzīz; The Almighty, The Self Sufficient, The Most Honorable
9
الجبار
Al-Jabbār; The Powerful, The Irresistible, The Compeller, The Most Lofty, The Restorer/Improver of Affairs
10
المتكبر
Al-Mutakabbir; The Tremendous
11
الخالق
Al-Khāliq; The Creator
12
البارئ
Al-Bāri'; The Rightful
13
المصور
Al-Muṣawwir; The Fashioner of Forms
14
الغفار
Al-Ghaffār; The Ever Forgiving
15
القهار
Al-Qahhār; The All Compelling Subduer
16
الوهاب
Al-Wahhāb; The Bestower
17
الرزاق
Ar-Razzāq; The Ever Providing
18
الفتاح
Al-Fattāh; The Opener, The Victory Giver
19
العليم
Al-ʿAlīm; The All Knowing, The Omniscient
20
القابض
Al-Qābiḍ; The Restrainer, The Straightener
21
الباسط
Al-Bāsiṭ; The Expander, The Munificent
22
الخافض
Al-Khāfiḍ; The Abaser
23
الرافع
Ar-Rāfiʿ; The Exalter
24
المعز
Al-Muʿizz; The Giver of Honour
25
المذل
Al-Mu'thell; The Giver of Dishonour
26
السميع
As-Samīʿ; The All Hearing
27
البصير
Al-Baṣīr; The All Seeing
28
الحكم
Al-Ḥakam; The Judge, The Arbitrator
29
العدل
Al-
`Adl; The Utterly Just
30
اللطيف
Al-Laṭīf; The Gentle, The Subtly Kind
31
الخبير
Al-Khabīr; The All Aware
32
الحليم
Al-Ḥalīm; The Forbearing, The Indulgent
33
العظيم
Al-ʿAẓīm; The Magnificent, The Infinite
34
الغفور
Al-Ghafūr; The All Forgiving
35
الشكور
Ash-Shakūr; The Grateful
36
العلي
Al-ʿAliyy; The Sublimely Exalted
37
الكبير
Al-Kabīr; The Great
38
الحفيظ
Al-Ḥafīẓ; The Preserver
39
المقيت
Al-Muqīt; The Nourisher
40
الحسيب
Al-Ḥasīb; The Bringer of Judgment
41
الجليل
Al-Jalīl; The Majestic
42
الكريم
Al-Karīm; The Bountiful, The Generous
43
الرقيب
Ar-Raqīb; The Watchful
44
المجيب
Al-Mujīb; The Responsive, The Answerer
45
الواسع
Al-Wāsiʿ; The Vast, The All Encompassing
46
الحكيم
Al-
Ḥakīm; The Wise
47
الودود
Al-Wadūd; The Loving, The Kind One
48
المجيد
Al-Majīd; The All Glorious
49
الباعث
Al-Bāʿith; The Raiser of The Dead
50
الشهيد
Ash-Shahīd; The Witness
51
الحق
Al-
Ḥaqq; The Truth, The Real
52
الوكيل
Al-Wakīl; The Trustee, The Dependable
53
القوى
Al-Qawwiyy; The Strong
54
المتين
Al-Matīn; The Firm, The Steadfast
55
الولى
Al-Waliyy; The Protecting Friend, Patron and Helper
56
الحميد
Al-
Hamid; The All Praiseworthy
57
المحصى
Al-Muḥṣi; The Accounter, The Numberer of All
58
المبدئ
Al-Mubdi'; The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All
59
المعيد
Al-Muʿīd; The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All
60
المحيى
Al-Muḥyi; The Giver of Life
61
المميت
Al-Mumīt; The Bringer of Death, The Destroyer
62
الحي
Al-Ḥayy; The Ever Living
63
القيوم
Al-Qayyūm; The Self Subsisting Provider of All
64
الواجد
Al-Wājid; The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing
65
الماجد
Al-Mājid; The Illustrious, The Magnificent
66
الواحد
Al-Wāḥid; The One, The Unique, Manifestation of Unity
67
الاحد
Al-'Aḥad; The One, the All Inclusive, The Indivisible
68
الصمد
Aṣ-Ṣamad; The Self Sufficient, The Impregnable,The Eternally Besought of All, The Everlasting
69
القادر
Al-Qādir; The All Able
70
المقتدر
Al-Muqtadir; The All Determiner, The Dominant
71
المقدم
Al-Muqaddim; The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward
72
المؤخر
Al-Mu'akhkhir; The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away
73
الأول
Al-'Awwal; The First (Alpha)
74
الأخر
Al-'Akhir; The Last (Omega)
75
الظاهر
Aẓ-ẓāhir; The Manifest, The All Victorious
76
الباطن
Al-Bāṭin; The Hidden, The All Encompassing
77
الوالي
Al-Wāli; The Patron
78
المتعالي
Al-Mutāʿali; The Self Exalted
79
البر
Al-Barr; The Most Kind and Righteous
80
التواب
At-Tawwāb; The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting
81
المنتقم
Al-Muntaqim; The Avenger
82
العفو
Al-ʿAfuww; The Pardoner, The Effacer of Sins
83
الرؤوف
Ar-Ra'ūf; The Compassionate, The All Pitying
84
مالك الملك
Mālik-ul-Mulk; The Owner of All Sovereignty
85
ذو الجلال والإكرام
Dhū-l-Jalāliwa-l-'ikrām; The Lord of Majesty and Generosity
86
المقسط
Al-Muqsiţ; The Equitable, The Requiter
87
الجامع
Al-Jāmiʿ; The Gatherer, The Unifier
88
الغني
Al-Ghaniyy; The All Rich, The Independent
89
المغني
Al-Mughni; The Enricher, The Emancipator
90
المانع
Al-Māniʿ; The Withholder, The Shielder, the Defender
91
الضار
Aḍ-Ḍārr; The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor
92
النافع
An-Nāfiʿ; The Propitious, The Benefactor
93
النور
An-Nūr; The Light
94
الهادي
Al-Hādi; The Guide
95
البديع
Al-Badīʿ; The Incomparable, The Originator
96
الباقي
Al-Bāqi; The Ever Enduring and Immutable
97
الوارث
Al-Wārith; The Heir, The Inheritor of All
98
الرشيد
Ar-Rashīd; The Guide, Infallible Teacher and Knower
99
الصبور
Aṣ-Ṣabur; The Patient, The Timeless.


100th Name

MahdiOther such hadiths, which vary according to different Shi'a sects of Islam, suggest that the 100th Name will be revealed by the Mahdi.


According to Islamic tradition, a Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in the exact same form. For example, nobody may be named al-Malik (The King), but may be named Malik (King).


However the names/attributes of God can be combined with the word "‘Abd -" which means "servant/slave" (of God) and are commonly used as
personal names among Muslims. For example ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ("Servant of the Most Compassionate/the Beneficent"). The two parts of the name may be written separately (as above) or combined as one transliterated name; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ‘Abd is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g. Abdurrahman, Abdul'aziz, "Abdul-Jabbar," or even Abdullah ("Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form: ‘abdu.)


Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99. Examples include:
Ra'ouf, such as
Ra'ouf Mus'ad.
Salam, such as
Salam Fayyad.
Kareem, such as
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar.

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